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I wanted to throw my hat in the ring in response to Matt’s most recent post, School Choice and Catholic Schools, and a post that he references from Scott Alessi from the U.S. Catholic. Both Matt and Scott make important distinctions about why Catholics support school choice. Scott offers this:
Undoubtedly, Catholic schools do have a lot to gain from voucher systems, but we have to remember that is not the primary reason why Catholics support them. The real issue here is one of justice, that every child deserves equal access to a quality education regardless of their social or economic status. Our agenda isn’t about self-preservation, it is about doing what is best for everyone. That means we want to see all kids get a quality education, no matter what school they attend.
In other words, vouchers are good because they let under-privileged children get out of low-performing schools and attend higher quality schools. It is a matter of equality of opportunity. Undoubtedly this is true and one of the primary reasons to support school choice.
But it suggests that if we could wave a magic wand and just fix the failing urban public schools – the “drop-out factories” as they are sometimes called – then we would not need school choice. Some would advocate for such a course of action, despite the enormous challenges to school turnaround policy and programs and their history of being expensive and ineffective. Yet even if it were a successful strategy and we suddenly transformed drop-out factories into high quality schools, there would still be other compelling reasons for school choice. And Matt points to an important one:
Redressing a wrong (i.e., that some parents have no say in what school their child attends) is always worthwhile and must remain the primary focus.
Matt’s comment suggests that the injustice is not only that hundreds of thousands of low-income minority children are relegated to failing schools, but that their parents are denied the right to exercise a choice in the matter. The reality of the situation is that middle and upper income families have school choice. They can choose to move to a different school district or pay tuition to send their children to a private school. Because of economic constraints, low-income families do not have choice. They are legally forced to send their children to a school that is assigned to them based upon where they live. Now, this injustice is doubly offensive because those schools are often dangerous places that dramatically fail to educate their children. But the very fact that parents are denied a choice is an injustice. Parents deserve to have a voice in where their children send their kids to school. The State is not the primary care-taker of my one-and-a-half-year-old daughter, and the State will not decide where she must go to school when the time comes. My wife and I are her parents, the primary educators and caregivers of our daughter, and we will make this profoundly important decision based upon what we think is best for her. To deny educational choice is not only to deny access to a quality education, it is to deny the dignity of parents as the caregivers of their children. The principle of subsidiarity from Catholic social teaching is the basis from which the Church advocates for leaving this responsibility in the hands of parents, and not denying it based-upon economic background.
Yet even this fails to provide us with the full picture. Charter schools provide real choice and options for parents. They are an important innovation and reform to the American education system, and are one valuable source of choice and educational innovation. However, only supporting a policy of charter schools or public school choice is not enough. To quote Pope Benedict XVI in his 2008 address to Catholic Educators in America:
No child should be denied his or her right to an education in faith, which in turn nurtures the soul of a nation.
It is not just equality of educational opportunity and recognizing the dignity of parents and giving them due responsibility for their children’s education. Fundamentally, authentic parental choice is a matter of religious liberty. Without authentic parental choice that is open to all forms of schooling, including faith-based and private schools, there is still an injustice that Catholics must oppose. If we opened charter schools and public school choice and turned around all of the failing urban public schools, poor children would still be denied the opportunity to have their souls nurtured through a faith-based education. It is the noble aim of the U.S. Constitution to protect the religious liberty of the people. For many parents, providing an education infused with faith, a moral foundation, alignment with the values taught in the home, and a sense of broader meaning in knowledge and life, is of fundamental importance and is a way of exercising religious conviction. We must protect this free-exercise of religious conviction, for parents but fundamentally for children. To do anything less is to deny some children the right to an education in faith.
These are the reasons that the Church and Catholics support parental choice, and why many thoughtful and civic minded Americans support it too.
The Indiana Choice Scholarship Program has received quite a bit of attention these past few weeks, and with good reason. National experts indicate that it marks the most successful first year implementation in the history of the parental choice movement. One aspect of the voucher program that has drawn attention of late is the high number of students enrolling in religious schools, particularly Catholic schools. Although details on the final numbers are still a little murky, roughly 2,500 students in Indiana will attend a Catholic school this year on a Choice Scholarship. For supporters of school choice, the level of participation in such a short time frame demonstrates an undeniable success. For supporters of Catholic schools, the increase in enrollment comes as welcome news at a time when many Catholic schools are closing. And for individuals who fall into both categories – proponents of school choice and advocates for Catholic schools – there is a temptation to link the two interests, identifying school choice as a panacea that can “save Catholic schools.” As Scott Alessi’s post rightfully notes, though, it is important that our priorities are in line.
School choice is not merely a means to an end for Catholic schools. School choice in and of itself represents an opportunity to address a social injustice, as more families are empowered with the opportunity to send their children to the school they desire. Those who believe in the value of a Catholic education are certainly right in hoping that more parents would then choose to send their kids to a Catholic school. Nevertheless, school choice is worthy of support even if not a single family chose to enroll their children in Catholic schools. Redressing a wrong (i.e., that some parents have no say in what school their child attends) is always worthwhile and must remain the primary focus. That Catholic schools will have more students is an encouraging, but secondary, consequence.